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1981;2:2416A....mixed....micellar....solution....of....C16....G2,....dicalcium....hydrogen....phosphate,....polyoxyethylene....cholesteryl....sebacetate....diester....(PCSD)....converts....to....a....niosome....dispersion....when....incubated....with....esterasesBaillie..AJ,..Florence..AT,..Hume..LR,..Muirhead..GT,..Rogerson..APardakhty..A,..Varshosaz..J,..Rouholamini..ABaillie..AJ,..Coombs..GH,..Dolan..TF,..Laurie..J

J...Pharm...PharmacolThe....hydrophilic....lipophilic....balance....of....the....drug....affects....the....degree....of....entrapment.Amount....and....type....of....surfactant....The....mean....size....of....niosomes....increases....proportionally....with....increase....in....the....hydrophilic-lipophilic....balance....(HLB)....of....surfactants....such....as....Span....85....(HLB....1.8)....to....Span....20....(HLB....8.6)....because....the....surface....free....energy....decreases....with....an....increase....in....hydrophobicity....of....surfactants.[41]....The....bilayers....of....the....vesicles....are....either....in....the....so-called....liquid....state....or....in....gel....state,....depending....on....the....temperature,....the....type....of....lipid....or....surfactant....and....the....presence....of....other....components....such....as....cholesterol10Mohammed....Shafik....El-Ridy,....Ahmed....Abdelbary,....Essam....Amin....Nasr,....Rawia....Mohammed....Khalil,....Dina....Mahmoud....Mostafa,....Ahmed....Ibrahim....El-Batal,....Sameh....Hosam....Abd....El-Alim,....Niosomal....encapsulation....of....the....antitubercular....drug,....pyrazinamide,....Drug....Development....and....Industrial....Pharmacy,....2011,....37,....9,....1110CrossRefThe....concentration....of....cholesterol....in....liposomes....is....much....more....than....that....in....niosomesA...dry...product...known...as...proniosomes...may...be...hydrated...immediately...before...use...to...yield...aqueous...niosome...dispersions2002;244:7380This..article..reviews..the..current..deepening..and..widening..of..interest..of..niosomes..in..many..scientific..disciplines..and,..particularly..its..application..in..medicineThe...film...is...hydrated...with...300...mM...citric...acid...(pH...4.0)...by...vortex...mixing1999;185:2335

Int..J..PharmFreeze....thawing....of....niosomes....increases....the....vesicle....diameter,....which....might....be....attributed....to....a....fusion....of....vesicles....during....the....cycle.Bilayer....formation....Assembly....of....non-ionic....surfactants....to....form....a....bilayer....vesicle....is....characterised....by....an....X-cross....formation....under....light....polarisation....microscopy.[31]Number....of....lamellae....This....is....determined....by....using....nuclear....magnetic....resonance....(NMR)....spectroscopy,....small....angle....X-ray....scattering....and....electron....microscopy.[29]Membrane....rigidity....Membrane....rigidity....can....be....measured....by....means....of....mobility....of....fluorescence....probe....as....a....function....of....temperature.[31]Entrapment....efficiency....After....preparing....niosomal....dispersion,....unentrapped....drug....is....separated....and....the....drug....remained....entrapped....in....niosomes....is....determined....by....complete....vesicle....disruption....using....50%....n-propanol....or....0.1%....Triton....X-100....and....analysing....the....resultant....solution....by....appropriate....assay....method....for....the....drug.[32]....It....can....be....represented....as:Entrapment....efficiency....(EF)....=....(Amount....entrapped..../....total....amount)........100In....vitro....Release....StudyA....method....of....in....vitro....release....rate....study....was....reported....with....the....help....of....dialysis....tubing.[33]....A....dialysis....sac....was....washed....and....soaked....in....distilled....waterBiswal....S,....Murthy....PN,....Sahu....J,....Sahoo....P,....Amir....FBrewer..JM,..Alexander..JTopical..delivery..of..erythromycin..from..various..formulations:..An..in..vivo..hairless..mouse..studyThe..ester-type..surfactants..are..chemically..less..stable..than..ether-type..surfactants..and..the..former..is..less..toxic..than..the..latter..due..to..ester-linked..surfactant..degraded..by..esterases..to..triglycerides..and..fatty..acid..in..vivo.[36]..The..surfactants..with..alkyl..chain..length..from..C12..to..C18..are..suitable..for..preparation..of..noisome1994;105:16.42doi:..10.4103/0110-5558.76435PMCID:..PMC3255404Niosome:..A..future..of..targeted..drug..delivery..systemsKarim..Masud..Kazi,..Asim..Sattwa..Mandal,..Nikhil..Biswas,..Arijit..Guha,..Sugata..Chatterjee,..Mamata..Behera,..and..Ketousetuo..KuotsuDepartment..of..Pharmaceutical..Technology,..Jadavpur..University,..Kolkata..–..700..032,..West..Bengal,..IndiaAddress..for..correspondence:..DrAbstractOver....the....past....several....years,....treatment....of....infectious....diseases....and....immunisation....has....undergone....a....revolutionary....shiftDispensing..for..Pharmaceutical..Students

Rogerson....A,....Cummings....J,....Willmott....N,....Florence....ATHunter...CA,...Dolan...TF,...Coombs...GH,...Baillie...AJVitro....interactions....with....plasma....proteins....and....phagocytesCharacterization..of..vesicles..prepared..with..various..non-ionic..surfactants..mixed..with..cholesterolCosmetic....and....ToiletriesIt...enhances...the...bioavailability...by...crossing...the...anatomical...barrier...of...gastrointestinal...tract...via...transcytosis...of...M...cells...of...Peyer's...patches...in...the...intestinal...lymphatic...tissues.[9]...The...niosomal...vesicles...are...taken...up...by...reticulo-endothelial...systemThe..effect..of..the..nature..of..drug..on..formation..vesicle..is..given..in..Table..2.Table..2Effect..of..the..nature..of..drug..on..the..formation..of..niosomesFactors..affecting..vesicles..size,..entrapment..efficiency,..and..release..characteristics..Drug..Entrapment..of..drug..in..niosomes..increases..vesicle..size,..probably..by..interaction..of..solute..with..surfactant..head..groups,..increasing..the..charge..and..mutual..repulsion..of..the..surfactant..bilayers,..thereby..increasing..vesicle..size1Swati..De,..Ranju..Prasad..Mandal,..Encyclopedia..of..Biocolloid..and..Biointerface..Science..2V..Set,..2016,..292CrossRefJ....Chromatogr 19d25c4272
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